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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(3), 82; doi:10.3390/md15030082

Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein

1
Institute of Aquaculture, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
2
School of Applied Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh EH11 4BN, Scotland, UK
3
Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Paterna, Valencia 46980, Spain
4
Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rosário Domingues, Ricardo Calado and Pedro Domingues
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids 2017)
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Abstract

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1n-15 (∆520:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1n-9 (∆1120:1) to ∆5,1120:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5n-3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C24) PUFAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosynthesis; elongation of very long-chain fatty acids 4 protein; non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; Octopus vulgaris; stearoyl-CoA desaturase biosynthesis; elongation of very long-chain fatty acids 4 protein; non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; Octopus vulgaris; stearoyl-CoA desaturase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Monroig, Ó.; de Llanos, R.; Varó, I.; Hontoria, F.; Tocher, D.R.; Puig, S.; Navarro, J.C. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 82.

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