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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(9), 165; doi:10.3390/md14090165

Bioprospecting Red Sea Coastal Ecosystems for Culturable Microorganisms and Their Antimicrobial Potential

1
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
2
Biology Department, Edge Hill University, St. Helens Road, Lancashire, Ormskirk L39 4QP, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Long
Received: 27 March 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
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Abstract

Microorganisms that inhabit unchartered unique soil such as in the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons on the Saudi Arabian coastline, represent untapped sources of potentially new bioactive compounds. In this study, a culture-dependent approach was applied to three types of sediments: mangrove mud (MN), microbial mat (MM), and barren soil (BS), collected from Rabigh harbor lagoon (RHL) and Al-Kharrar lagoon (AKL). The isolated bacteria were evaluated for their potential to produce bioactive compounds. The phylogenetic characterization of 251 bacterial isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supported their assignment to five different phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. Fifteen putative novel species were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other strain sequences in the NCBI database, being ≤98%. We demonstrate that 49 of the 251 isolates exhibit the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds. Additionally, at least one type of biosynthetic gene sequence, responsible for the synthesis of secondary metabolites, was recovered from 25 of the 49 isolates. Moreover, 10 of the isolates had a growth inhibition effect towards Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas syringae. We report the previously unknown antimicrobial activity of B. borstelensis, P. dendritiformis and M. salipaludis against all three indicator pathogens. Our study demonstrates the evidence of diverse cultured microbes associated with the Red Sea harbor/lagoon environments and their potential to produce antimicrobial compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Red Sea; mangrove mud; microbial mat; barren soil; culturable bacteria; phylogenetic diversity; 16S rRNA; firmicutes; bioactivity; antimicrobial compounds; biosynthetic genes; bioinformatics Red Sea; mangrove mud; microbial mat; barren soil; culturable bacteria; phylogenetic diversity; 16S rRNA; firmicutes; bioactivity; antimicrobial compounds; biosynthetic genes; bioinformatics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Amoudi, S.; Essack, M.; Simões, M.F.; Bougouffa, S.; Soloviev, I.; Archer, J.A.C.; Lafi, F.F.; Bajic, V.B. Bioprospecting Red Sea Coastal Ecosystems for Culturable Microorganisms and Their Antimicrobial Potential. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 165.

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