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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(7), 140; doi:10.3390/md14070140

APO-9′-Fucoxanthinone Extracted from Undariopsis peteseniana Protects Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Human Airway Epithelial Cells

1
Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
2
Medical Specialty Service Line, VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, PA 15240, USA
3
Department of Marine Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea
4
Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
5
Department of Seafood Science and Technology, Institute of Marine Industry, Gyeongsang National University, Tongyeong 650-160, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith B. Glaser
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
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Abstract

Long-term cigarette smoking increases the risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by irreversible expiratory airflow limitation. The pathogenesis of COPD involves oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Various natural marine compounds possess both anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but few have been tested for their efficacy in COPD models. In this study, we conducted an in vitro screening test to identify natural compounds isolated from various brown algae species that might provide protection against cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytotoxicity. Among nine selected natural compounds, apo-9′-fucoxanthinone (Apo9F) exhibited the highest protection against CSE-induced cytotoxicity in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC2). Furthermore, the protective effects of Apo9F were observed to be associated with a significant reduction in apoptotic cell death, DNA damage, and the levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from CSE-exposed HBEC2 cells. These results suggest that Apo9F protects against CSE-induced DNA damage and apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial ROS production. View Full-Text
Keywords: brown algae; apo-9′-fucoxanthinone; cigarette smoke; airway epithelial cells; DNA damage; apoptosis; oxidative stress brown algae; apo-9′-fucoxanthinone; cigarette smoke; airway epithelial cells; DNA damage; apoptosis; oxidative stress
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jang, J.-H.; Lee, J.-H.; Chand, H.S.; Lee, J.-S.; Lin, Y.; Weathington, N.; Mallampalli, R.; Jeon, Y.-J.; Nyunoya, T. APO-9′-Fucoxanthinone Extracted from Undariopsis peteseniana Protects Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Human Airway Epithelial Cells. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 140.

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