Next Article in Journal
In Vitro Effect of the Synthetic cal14.1a Conotoxin, Derived from Conus californicus, on the Human Parasite Toxoplasma gondii
Previous Article in Journal
New Cyclic Lipopeptides of the Iturin Class Produced by Saltern-Derived Bacillus sp. KCB14S006
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(4), 73; doi:10.3390/md14040073

Indole Alkaloids of the Stigonematales (Cyanophyta): Chemical Diversity, Biosynthesis and Biological Activity

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Marine Science Program, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6139 KB, uploaded 6 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

The cyanobacteria are well recognized as producers of a wide array of bioactive metabolites including toxins, and potential drug candidates. However, a limited number of taxa are generally considered with respect to both of these aspects. That said, the order Stigonematales, although largely overlooked in this regard, has become increasingly recognized as a source of bioactive metabolites relevant to both human and environmental health. In particular, the hapalindoles and related indole alkaloids (i.e., ambiguines, fischerindoles, welwitindolinones) from the order, represent a diverse, and phylogenetically characteristic, class of secondary metabolites with biological activity suggestive of potential as both environmental toxins, and promising drug discovery leads. The present review gives an overview of the chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites from the Stigonematales—and particularly the so-called hapalindole-type alkaloids—including their biosynthetic origins, and their pharmacologically and toxicologically relevant bioactivities. Taken together, the current evidence suggests that these alkaloids, and the associated cyanobacterial taxa from the order, warrant future consideration as both potentially harmful (i.e., “toxic”) algae, and as promising leads for drug discovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; blue-green algae; Stigonematales; indole alkaloids; hapalindole; ambiguine; fischerindole; welwitindolinone; toxins; harmful algal blooms cyanobacteria; blue-green algae; Stigonematales; indole alkaloids; hapalindole; ambiguine; fischerindole; welwitindolinone; toxins; harmful algal blooms
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Walton, K.; Berry, J.P. Indole Alkaloids of the Stigonematales (Cyanophyta): Chemical Diversity, Biosynthesis and Biological Activity. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 73.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top