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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(2), 39; doi:10.3390/md14020039

Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira No. 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anake Kijjoa
Received: 23 December 2015 / Revised: 3 February 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)

Abstract

The marine environment is an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites. During the last two decades, thousands of compounds were discovered in marine organisms, several of them having inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. Marine mollusks constitute a successful phyla in the discovery of new marine natural products (MNPs). Over a 50-year period from 1963, 116 genera of mollusks contributed innumerous compounds, Aplysia being the most studied genus by MNP chemists. This genus includes 36 valid species and should be distinguished from all mollusks as it yielded numerous new natural products. Aplysia sea hares are herbivorous mollusks, which have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, mostly of dietary origin. The majority of secondary metabolites isolated from sea hares of the genus Aplysia are halogenated terpenes; however, these animals are also a source of compounds from other chemical classes, such as macrolides, sterols and alkaloids, often exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and/or antifeedant activities. This review focuses on the diverse structural classes of secondary metabolites found in Aplysia spp., including several compounds with pronounced biological properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: mollusks; sea hares; Aplysia; secondary metabolites; biological properties mollusks; sea hares; Aplysia; secondary metabolites; biological properties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pereira, R.B.; Andrade, P.B.; Valentão, P. Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 39.

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