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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(11), 214; doi:10.3390/md14110214

Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

1
Discipline of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, 3083 Bundoora, Australia
2
Chemistry Section, School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, via S. Agostino 1, 62032 Camerino, Italy
3
Nutrition and Food Science Area, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Sciences, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain
4
Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Pole of Chemical Engineering, University of Genoa, via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genoa, Italy
5
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
6
ProdAl Scarl, via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy
7
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, 671 Sneydes Road, 3030 Werribee, VIC, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tatsuya Sugawara and Takashi Maoka
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Carotenoids)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1522 KB, uploaded 22 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine microalgae; seaweeds; carotenoids; nonconventional extraction; electrotechnologies; pulsed electric field-assisted extraction; supercritical fluid extraction; green processing; microwave-assisted extraction; marine drugs marine microalgae; seaweeds; carotenoids; nonconventional extraction; electrotechnologies; pulsed electric field-assisted extraction; supercritical fluid extraction; green processing; microwave-assisted extraction; marine drugs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Poojary, M.M.; Barba, F.J.; Aliakbarian, B.; Donsì, F.; Pataro, G.; Dias, D.A.; Juliano, P. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 214.

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