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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2390-2406; doi:10.3390/md13042390

Dihydroaustrasulfone Alcohol Inhibits PDGF-Induced Proliferation and Migration of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells through Inhibition of the Cell Cycle

1
Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, Lienhai Road, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Sec. 6, Minquan E. Road, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
3
Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-sen University and Academia Sinica, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
4
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wuxing Street, Taipei 11042, Taiwan
5
Department of Physiology and Biophysics; Graduate Institute of Physiology, National Defense Medical Center, Sec. 6, Minquan E. Road, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
6
Department of Neurosurgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peer Jacobson
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 27 March 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
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Abstract

Dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol is the synthetic precursor of austrasulfone, which is a marine natural product, isolated from the Taiwanese soft coral Cladiella australis. Dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antitumor and anti-atherogenic properties. Although dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol has been shown to inhibit neointima formation, its effect on human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has not been elucidated. We examined the effects and the mechanisms of action of dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol on proliferation, migration and phenotypic modulation of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol significantly inhibited proliferation, DNA synthesis and migration of HASMCs, without inducing cell death. Dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol also inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 2, CDK4, cyclin D1 and cyclin E. In addition, dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol inhibited PDGF-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), whereas it had no effect on the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/(Akt). Moreover, treatment with PD98059, a highly selective ERK inhibitor, blocked PDGF-induced upregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E and downregulation of p27kip1. Furthermore, dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol also inhibits VSMC synthetic phenotype formation induced by PDGF. For in vivo studies, dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol decreased smooth muscle cell proliferation in a rat model of restenosis induced by balloon injury. Immunohistochemical staining showed that dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol noticeably decreased the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and altered VSMC phenotype from a synthetic to contractile state. Our findings provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying the vasoprotective actions of dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol and suggest that it may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of vascular occlusive disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol; vascular smooth muscle cell; proliferation; migration; phenotypic modulation; cell cycle; restenosis dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol; vascular smooth muscle cell; proliferation; migration; phenotypic modulation; cell cycle; restenosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.-C.; Wen, Z.-H.; Lee, Y.-H.; Chen, C.-L.; Hung, H.-C.; Chen, C.-H.; Chen, W.-F.; Tsai, M.-C. Dihydroaustrasulfone Alcohol Inhibits PDGF-Induced Proliferation and Migration of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells through Inhibition of the Cell Cycle. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 2390-2406.

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