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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2124-2140; doi:10.3390/md13042124

Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

1
Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, Viikki Biocenter 1, University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland
2
Program in Structural Biology and Biophysics, Institute of Biotechnology/Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Laboratory, University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland
3
Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Avenida Centenário 303, Piracicaba, 13400-970, São Paulo, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 26 March 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
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Abstract

Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural products; drug leads; Candida albicans; Aspergillus sp.; 16S rRNA natural products; drug leads; Candida albicans; Aspergillus sp.; 16S rRNA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shishido, T.K.; Humisto, A.; Jokela, J.; Liu, L.; Wahlsten, M.; Tamrakar, A.; Fewer, D.P.; Permi, P.; Andreote, A.P.D.; Fiore, M.F.; Sivonen, K. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 2124-2140.

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