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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2141-2157; doi:10.3390/md13042141

Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol Inhibits Interleukin-6 Production by Regulating NF-κB, STAT5 and SOCS1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

1
Department of Biomedicine & Drug Development, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea
2
Department of Medicine, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju 690-756, Korea
3
Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea
4
Jeju Biodiversity Research Institute (JBRI), JejuTechnopark (JTP), Jeju 690-787, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith B. Glaser
Received: 1 January 2015 / Revised: 9 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
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Abstract

Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) is a phlorotannin compound isolated from Ishige okamuarae, a brown alga. This study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and action mechanism of DPHC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that DPHC strongly reduces the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), but not that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced by LPS. DPHC (12.5 and 100 μM) suppressed the phosphorylation and the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB (NF-κB), a central signaling molecule in the inflammation process induced by LPS. The suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a negative feedback regulator of Janus kinase (Jak)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling. In this study, DPHC inhibited STAT5 expression and upregulated that of SOCS1 at a concentration of 100 μM. Furthermore, N-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) (a specific NF-κB inhibitor) and JI (a specific Jak2 inhibitor) reduced the production of IL-6, but not that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. These findings demonstrate that DPHC inhibits IL-6 production via the downregulation of NF-κB and Jak2-STAT5 pathway and upregulation of SOCS1. View Full-Text
Keywords: diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC); IL-6; NF-κB; Jak-STAT; SOCS; LPS; inflammation diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC); IL-6; NF-κB; Jak-STAT; SOCS; LPS; inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kang, N.-J.; Han, S.-C.; Kang, G.-J.; Koo, D.-H.; Koh, Y.-S.; Hyun, J.-W.; Lee, N.-H.; Ko, M.-H.; Kang, H.-K.; Yoo, E.-S. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol Inhibits Interleukin-6 Production by Regulating NF-κB, STAT5 and SOCS1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 2141-2157.

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