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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(12), 7463-7475; doi:10.3390/md13127076

Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation

1
Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan
2
Omura Toryo Co., Ltd., 87, 3-Chome, Chiyomi, Tottori 680-0991, Japan
3
Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8552, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith B. Glaser
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 6 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 19 December 2015
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Abstract

Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs). We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs) and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm2), and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs) tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitin nanofibrils; urocanic acid; UVB; erythema; sunburn cell chitin nanofibrils; urocanic acid; UVB; erythema; sunburn cell
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ito, I.; Yoneda, T.; Omura, Y.; Osaki, T.; Ifuku, S.; Saimoto, H.; Azuma, K.; Imagawa, T.; Tsuka, T.; Murahata, Y.; Ito, N.; Okamoto, Y.; Minami, S. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 7463-7475.

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