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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(10), 6226-6246; doi:10.3390/md13106226

Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health

1
Human and Clinical Nutrition Unit, Department of Medical Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, Via Dei Vestini, "G. D'Annunzio" University, Chieti 66013, Italy
2
Cardiology Unit, San Camillo De Lellis Hospital, Manfredonia 71043, Foggia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Long
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 22 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
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Abstract

Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine carotenoids; oxidative stress; antioxidants; inflammatory diseases marine carotenoids; oxidative stress; antioxidants; inflammatory diseases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gammone, M.A.; Riccioni, G.; D'Orazio, N. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 6226-6246.

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