Next Article in Journal
Preliminary Characterization, Antioxidant Properties and Production of Chrysolaminarin from Marine Diatom Odontella aurita
Next Article in Special Issue
SxtA and sxtG Gene Expression and Toxin Production in the Mediterranean Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae)
Previous Article in Journal
Purification of a Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan for SPECT Molecular Imaging of Myocardial Infarction
Previous Article in Special Issue
Obtaining Spheroplasts of Armored Dinoflagellates and First Single-Channel Recordings of Their Ion Channels Using Patch-Clamping
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(9), 4868-4882; doi:10.3390/md12094868

A New Cytotoxicity Assay for Brevetoxins Using Fluorescence Microscopy

UNCW Center for Marine Science, 5600 Marvin K Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Dinoflagellates)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1080 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Brevetoxins are a family of ladder-framed polyether toxins produced during blooms of the marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Consumption of shellfish or finfish exposed to brevetoxins can lead to the development of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. The toxic effects of brevetoxins are believed to be due to the activation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in cell membranes. The traditional cytotoxicity assay for detection of brevetoxins uses the Neuro-2A cell line, which must first be treated with the neurotoxins, ouabain and veratridine, in order to become sensitive to brevetoxins. In this study, we demonstrate several drawbacks of the Neuro-2A assay, which include variability for the EC50 values for brevetoxin and non-linear triphasic dose response curves. Ouabain/ veratridine-treated Neuro-2A cells do not show a typical sigmoidal dose response curve in response to brevetoxin, but rather, have a polynomial shaped curve, which makes calculating EC50 values highly variable. We describe a new fluorescence live cell imaging model, which allows for accurate calculation of cytotoxicity via nuclear staining and additional measurement of other viability parameters depending on which aspect of the cell is stained. In addition, the SJCRH30 cell line shows promise as an alternative to Neuro-2A cells for testing brevetoxins without the need for ouabain and veratridine. View Full-Text
Keywords: brevetoxins; cytotoxicity assay; triphasic response; hormesis; Neuro-2A; SJCRH30 brevetoxins; cytotoxicity assay; triphasic response; hormesis; Neuro-2A; SJCRH30
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

McCall, J.R.; Elliott, E.A.; Bourdelais, A.J. A New Cytotoxicity Assay for Brevetoxins Using Fluorescence Microscopy. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 4868-4882.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top