Next Article in Journal
Lamellarin O, a Pyrrole Alkaloid from an Australian Marine Sponge, Ianthella sp., Reverses BCRP Mediated Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Bioactive Cembrane Derivatives from the Indian Ocean Soft Coral, Sinularia kavarattiensis
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Defensive Metabolites from Antarctic Invertebrates: Does Energetic Content Interfere with Feeding Repellence?
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(7), 3792-3817; doi:10.3390/md12073792
Article

Flexibilide Obtained from Cultured Soft Coral Has Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Analgesic Effects through the Upregulation of Spinal Transforming Growth Factor-β1 in Neuropathic Rats

1,2,†
,
1,3,†
,
2
,
2
,
1,4
,
1,4
,
1,4
,
1
,
5
,
6,7
,
8
,
9,10
,
4
,
1,4
,
11,*  and 1,4,*
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 29 May 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [628 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Chronic neuroinflammation plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. The compound flexibilide, which can be obtained from cultured soft coral, possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in the rat carrageenan peripheral inflammation model. In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive properties of flexibilide in the rat chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. First, we found that a single intrathecal (i.t.) administration of flexibilide significantly attenuated CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia at 14 days after surgery. Second, i.t. administration of 10-μg flexibilide twice daily was able to prevent the development of thermal hyperalgesia and weight-bearing deficits in CCI rats. Third, i.t. flexibilide significantly inhibited CCI-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes, as well as the upregulated proinflammatory enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase, in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. Furthermore, flexibilide attenuated the CCI-induced downregulation of spinal transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) at 14 days after surgery. Finally, i.t. SB431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor, blocked the analgesic effects of flexibilide in CCI rats. Our results suggest that flexibilide may serve as a therapeutic agent for neuropathic pain. In addition, spinal TGF-β1 may be involved in the anti-neuroinflammatory and analgesic effects of flexibilide.
Keywords: flexibilide; chronic constriction injury; neuropathic pain; spinal neuroinflammation; microglial activation; transforming growth factor-β1; natural marine compound flexibilide; chronic constriction injury; neuropathic pain; spinal neuroinflammation; microglial activation; transforming growth factor-β1; natural marine compound
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplement

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, N.-F.; Huang, S.-Y.; Lu, C.-H.; Chen, C.-L.; Feng, C.-W.; Chen, C.-H.; Hung, H.-C.; Lin, Y.-Y.; Sung, P.-J.; Sung, C.-S.; Yang, S.-N.; Wang, H.-M.D.; Chang, Y.-C.; Sheu, J.-H.; Chen, W.-F.; Wen, Z.-H. Flexibilide Obtained from Cultured Soft Coral Has Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Analgesic Effects through the Upregulation of Spinal Transforming Growth Factor-β1 in Neuropathic Rats. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 3792-3817.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert