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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(4), 2245-2268; doi:10.3390/md12042245
Article

Modification of Chitin with Kraft Lignin and Development of New Biosorbents for Removal of Cadmium(II) and Nickel(II) Ions

1
, 1
, 2
, 1
, 1
, 1
, 1
, 3
 and 1,*
1 Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 2, Poznan 60965, Poland 2 Institute of Inorganic Chemical Technology and Environmental Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Pułaskiego 10, Szczecin 70322, Poland 3 Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Str. 23, Freiberg 09599, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2014 / Revised: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biomaterials)
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Abstract

Novel, functional materials based on chitin of marine origin and lignin were prepared. The synthesized materials were subjected to physicochemical, dispersive-morphological and electrokinetic analysis. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method of synthesis of functional chitin/lignin materials. Mechanism of chitin modification by lignin is based on formation of hydrogen bonds between chitin and lignin. Additionally, the chitin/lignin materials were studied from the perspective of waste water treatment. The synthetic method presented in this work shows an attractive and facile route for producing low-cost chitin/lignin biosorbents with high efficiency of nickel and cadmium adsorption (88.0% and 98.4%, respectively). The discovery of this facile method of synthesis of functional chitin/lignin materials will also have a significant impact on the problematic issue of the utilization of chitinous waste from the seafood industry, as well as lignin by-products from the pulp and paper industry.
Keywords: chitin/lignin biosorbents; chitin; kraft lignin; physicochemical properties; adsorption efficiency; hazardous metal removal chitin/lignin biosorbents; chitin; kraft lignin; physicochemical properties; adsorption efficiency; hazardous metal removal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Wysokowski, M.; Klapiszewski, Ł.; Moszyński, D.; Bartczak, P.; Szatkowski, T.; Majchrzak, I.; Siwińska-Stefańska, K.; Bazhenov, V.V.; Jesionowski, T. Modification of Chitin with Kraft Lignin and Development of New Biosorbents for Removal of Cadmium(II) and Nickel(II) Ions. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2245-2268.

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