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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(4), 2228-2244; doi:10.3390/md12042228

Maritime Halophyte Species from Southern Portugal as Sources of Bioactive Molecules

1 Centre of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Ed. 7, Campus of Gambelas, Faro 8005-139, Portugal 2 Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Avenida da Republica, Oeiras P-2780-157, Portugal 3 Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2014 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
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Extracts of five halophytes from southern Portugal (Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Mesembryanthemum edule, Juncus acutus, Plantago coronopus and Halimione portulacoides), were studied for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and in vitro antitumor properties. The most active extracts towards the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical were the methanol extracts of M. edule (IC50 = 0.1 mg/mL) and J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL), and the ether extracts of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.2 mg/mL) and A. macrostachyum (IC50 = 0.3 mg/mL). The highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) against the 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical was obtained in the ether extract of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL) and H. portulacoides (IC50 = 0.9 mg/mL). The maximum total phenolic content (TPC) was found in the methanol extract of M. edule (147 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g) and in the ether extract of J. acutus (94 mg GAE/g). Significant decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production were observed after incubation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the chloroform extract of H. portulacoides (IC50 = 109 µg/mL) and the hexane extract of P. coronopus (IC50 = 98.0 µg/mL). High in vitro cytotoxic activity and selectivity was obtained with the ether extract of J. acutus. Juncunol was identified as the active compound and for the first time was shown to display selective in vitro cytotoxicity towards various human cancer cells.
Keywords: antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cytotoxicity; halophytes; juncunol; Juncus acutus antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cytotoxicity; halophytes; juncunol; Juncus acutus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Rodrigues, M.J.; Gangadhar, K.N.; Vizetto-Duarte, C.; Wubshet, S.G.; Nyberg, N.T.; Barreira, L.; Varela, J.; Custódio, L. Maritime Halophyte Species from Southern Portugal as Sources of Bioactive Molecules. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2228-2244.

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