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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 822-839; doi:10.3390/md12020822
Article

Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Tryptoquivalines and Meroditerpenes Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungi Neosartorya paulistensis, N. laciniosa, N. tsunodae, and the Soil Fungi N. fischeri and N. siamensis

1,2,†
, 1,2,†
, 1,2
, 1,2
, 3
, 4
, 5
 and 1,2,*
1 ICBAS—Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, Porto 4050-313, Portugal 2 Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, Porto 4050-123, Portugal 3 Division of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok 10240, Thailand 4 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10240, Thailand 5 Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro 4810-1933, Portugal These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2013 / Revised: 17 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
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Abstract

A new meroditerpene, sartorypyrone C (5), was isolated, together with the known tryptoquivalines L (1a), H (1b), F (1c), 3′-(4-oxoquinazolin-3-yl) spiro [1H-indole-3,5′]-2,2′-dione (2) and 4(3H)-quinazolinone (3), from the culture of the marine sponge-associated fungus Neosartorya paulistensis (KUFC 7897), while reexamination of the fractions remaining from a previous study of the culture of the diseased coral-derived fungus N. laciniosa (KUFC 7896) led to isolation of a new tryptoquivaline derivative tryptoquivaline T (1d). Compounds 1ad, 2, 3, and 5, together with aszonapyrones A (4a) and B (4b), chevalones B (6) and C (7a), sartorypyrones B (7b) and A (8), were tested for their antibacterial activity against four reference strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as the environmental multidrug-resistant isolates. Only aszonapyrone A (4a) and sartorypyrone A (8) exhibited significant antibacterial activity as well as synergism with antibiotics against the Gram-positive multidrug-resistant strains. Antibiofilm assays of aszonapyrone A (4a) and sartorypyrone A (8) showed that practically no biofilm was formed in the presence of their 2× MIC and MIC. However, the presence of a sub-inhibitory concentration of ½ MIC of 4a and 8 was found to increase the biofilm production in both reference strain and the multidrug-resistant isolates of S. aureus.
Keywords: antibacterial; antibiofilm; multidrug-resistant; tryptoquivalines; meroditerpenes; Neosartorya; marine-derived fungi antibacterial; antibiofilm; multidrug-resistant; tryptoquivalines; meroditerpenes; Neosartorya; marine-derived fungi
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Gomes, N.M.; Bessa, L.J.; Buttachon, S.; Costa, P.M.; Buaruang, J.; Dethoup, T.; Silva, A.M.S.; Kijjoa, A. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Tryptoquivalines and Meroditerpenes Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungi Neosartorya paulistensis, N. laciniosa, N. tsunodae, and the Soil Fungi N. fischeri and N. siamensis. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 822-839.

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