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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 734-745; doi:10.3390/md12020734
Article

Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

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Received: 26 November 2013; in revised form: 8 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action Analysis for Marine Compounds)
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Abstract: Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery.
Keywords: cnidocyst; Nematostella vectensis; transdermal; diffusion cell; hydrophilic drug cnidocyst; Nematostella vectensis; transdermal; diffusion cell; hydrophilic drug
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tal, Y.; Ayalon, A.; Sharaev, A.; Kazir, Z.; Brekhman, V.; Lotan, T. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 734-745.

AMA Style

Tal Y, Ayalon A, Sharaev A, Kazir Z, Brekhman V, Lotan T. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(2):734-745.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar. 2014. "Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 2: 734-745.


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