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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 1043-1065; doi:10.3390/md12021043
Review

Co-Cultivation—A Powerful Emerging Tool for Enhancing the Chemical Diversity of Microorganisms

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Received: 9 January 2014; in revised form: 23 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 17 February 2014
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Abstract: Marine-derived bacteria and fungi are promising sources of novel bioactive compounds that are important for drug discovery programs. However, as encountered in terrestrial microorganisms there is a high rate of redundancy that results in the frequent re-discovery of known compounds. Apparently only a part of the biosynthetic genes that are harbored by fungi and bacteria are transcribed under routine laboratory conditions which involve cultivation of axenic microbial strains. Many biosynthetic genes remain silent and are not expressed in vitro thereby seriously limiting the chemical diversity of microbial compounds that can be obtained through fermentation. In contrast to this, co-cultivation (also called mixed fermentation) of two or more different microorganisms tries to mimic the ecological situation where microorganisms always co-exist within complex microbial communities. The competition or antagonism experienced during co-cultivation is shown to lead to a significantly enhanced production of constitutively present compounds and/or to an accumulation of cryptic compounds that are not detected in axenic cultures of the producing strain. This review highlights the power of co-cultivation for increasing the chemical diversity of bacteria and fungi drawing on published studies from the marine and from the terrestrial habitat alike.
Keywords: marine-derived microorganisms; co-cultivation; mixed fermentation; silent genes; natural products marine-derived microorganisms; co-cultivation; mixed fermentation; silent genes; natural products
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Marmann, A.; Aly, A.H.; Lin, W.; Wang, B.; Proksch, P. Co-Cultivation—A Powerful Emerging Tool for Enhancing the Chemical Diversity of Microorganisms. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1043-1065.

AMA Style

Marmann A, Aly AH, Lin W, Wang B, Proksch P. Co-Cultivation—A Powerful Emerging Tool for Enhancing the Chemical Diversity of Microorganisms. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(2):1043-1065.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marmann, Andreas; Aly, Amal H.; Lin, Wenhan; Wang, Bingui; Proksch, Peter. 2014. "Co-Cultivation—A Powerful Emerging Tool for Enhancing the Chemical Diversity of Microorganisms." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 2: 1043-1065.


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