Next Article in Journal
Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Halisulfate 3 and Suvanine as Novel Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Helicase from a Marine Sponge
Next Article in Special Issue
A Feedback Mechanism to Control Apoptosis Occurs in the Digestive Gland of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas Exposed to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Producer Alexandrium catenella
Previous Article in Journal
Discovery of Novel Diterpenoids from Sinularia arborea
Previous Article in Special Issue
Exposure to the Neurotoxic Dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella, Induces Apoptosis of the Hemocytes of the Oyster, Crassostrea gigas
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 394-461; doi:10.3390/md12010394
Review

Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

1,* , 2
, 1
, 1,3
, 4
, 2
, 2
 and 5,*
Received: 11 November 2013; in revised form: 29 November 2013 / Accepted: 31 December 2013 / Published: 20 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Shellfish Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1647 KB, uploaded 20 January 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated.
Keywords: Dinophysis; diarrhoetic shellfish toxins; pectenotoxins; diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning; DSP; harmful algal blooms; DSP distribution and impacts Dinophysis; diarrhoetic shellfish toxins; pectenotoxins; diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning; DSP; harmful algal blooms; DSP distribution and impacts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Reguera, B.; Riobó, P.; Rodríguez, F.; Díaz, P.A.; Pizarro, G.; Paz, B.; Franco, J.M.; Blanco, J. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 394-461.

AMA Style

Reguera B, Riobó P, Rodríguez F, Díaz PA, Pizarro G, Paz B, Franco JM, Blanco J. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(1):394-461.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A.; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Blanco, Juan. 2014. "Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 1: 394-461.


Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert