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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(9), 3272-3287; doi:10.3390/md11093272
Article

Apo-9′-Fucoxanthinone, Isolated from Sargassum muticum, Inhibits CpG-Induced Inflammatory Response by Attenuating the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

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Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 29 July 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 27 August 2013
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Abstract

Sargassum muticum (S. muticum) is a brown edible alga and widely distributed in Korea. This report was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of apo-9′-fucoxanthinone (APO-9′) isolated from S. muticum on pro-inflammatory cytokine production. S. muticum extract (SME) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and dendritic cells (BMDCs). APO-9′ pre-treatment in the CpG DNA-stimulated BMDMs and BMDCs showed a strong dose-dependent inhibitory effect on interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production with IC50 values ranging from 5.31 to 13.79. It exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and on activator protein (AP)-1 reporter activity. APO-9′ pre-treatment exhibited significant inhibition of CpG DNA-induced production of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taken together, these data suggest that SME and APO-9′ have a significant anti-inflammatory property and warrant further studies concerning the potentials of SME and APO-9′ for medicinal use.
Keywords: Sargassum muticum; apo-9′-fucoxanthinone; activator protein-1; pro-inflammatory cytokine; ERK1/2; inflammation Sargassum muticum; apo-9′-fucoxanthinone; activator protein-1; pro-inflammatory cytokine; ERK1/2; inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Chae, D.; Manzoor, Z.; Kim, S.C.; Kim, S.; Oh, T.-H.; Yoo, E.-S.; Kang, H.-K.; Hyun, J.-W.; Lee, N.H.; Ko, M.-H.; Koh, Y.-S. Apo-9′-Fucoxanthinone, Isolated from Sargassum muticum, Inhibits CpG-Induced Inflammatory Response by Attenuating the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3272-3287.

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