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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(9), 3272-3287; doi:10.3390/md11093272
Article

Apo-9′-Fucoxanthinone, Isolated from Sargassum muticum, Inhibits CpG-Induced Inflammatory Response by Attenuating the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

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1 School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea 2 Institute of Medical Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea 3 Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea 4 Jeju Biodiversity Research Institute, Jeju Technopark, Jeju 699-943, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 29 July 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 27 August 2013
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Abstract

Sargassum muticum (S. muticum) is a brown edible alga and widely distributed in Korea. This report was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of apo-9′-fucoxanthinone (APO-9′) isolated from S. muticum on pro-inflammatory cytokine production. S. muticum extract (SME) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and dendritic cells (BMDCs). APO-9′ pre-treatment in the CpG DNA-stimulated BMDMs and BMDCs showed a strong dose-dependent inhibitory effect on interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production with IC50 values ranging from 5.31 to 13.79. It exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and on activator protein (AP)-1 reporter activity. APO-9′ pre-treatment exhibited significant inhibition of CpG DNA-induced production of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taken together, these data suggest that SME and APO-9′ have a significant anti-inflammatory property and warrant further studies concerning the potentials of SME and APO-9′ for medicinal use.
Keywords: Sargassum muticum; apo-9′-fucoxanthinone; activator protein-1; pro-inflammatory cytokine; ERK1/2; inflammation Sargassum muticum; apo-9′-fucoxanthinone; activator protein-1; pro-inflammatory cytokine; ERK1/2; inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Chae, D.; Manzoor, Z.; Kim, S.C.; Kim, S.; Oh, T.-H.; Yoo, E.-S.; Kang, H.-K.; Hyun, J.-W.; Lee, N.H.; Ko, M.-H.; Koh, Y.-S. Apo-9′-Fucoxanthinone, Isolated from Sargassum muticum, Inhibits CpG-Induced Inflammatory Response by Attenuating the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3272-3287.

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