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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(6), 2168-2182; doi:10.3390/md11062168
Article

Synchronized Regulation of Different Zwitterionic Metabolites in the Osmoadaption of Phytoplankton

 and *
Received: 8 April 2013; in revised form: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 28 May 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
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Abstract: The ability to adapt to different seawater salinities is essential for cosmopolitan marine phytoplankton living in very diverse habitats. In this study, we examined the role of small zwitterionic metabolites in the osmoadaption of two common microalgae species Emiliania huxleyi and Prorocentrum minimum. By cultivation of the algae under salinities between 16‰ and 38‰ and subsequent analysis of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), glycine betaine (GBT), gonyol, homarine, trigonelline, dimethylsulfonioacetate, trimethylammonium propionate, and trimethylammonium butyrate using HPLC-MS, we could reveal two fundamentally different osmoadaption mechanisms. While E. huxleyi responded with cell size reduction and a nearly constant ratio between the major metabolites DMSP, GBT and homarine to increasing salinity, osmolyte composition of P. minimum changed dramatically. In this alga DMSP concentration remained nearly constant at 18.6 mM between 20‰ and 32‰ but the amount of GBT and dimethylsulfonioacetate increased from 4% to 30% of total investigated osmolytes. Direct quantification of zwitterionic metabolites via LC-MS is a powerful tool to unravel the complex osmoadaption and regulation mechanisms of marine phytoplankton.
Keywords: Emiliania huxleyi; Prorocentrum minimum; dinoflagellates; haptophytes dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP); gonyol; dimethylsulfide (DMS); osmoadaption Emiliania huxleyi; Prorocentrum minimum; dinoflagellates; haptophytes dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP); gonyol; dimethylsulfide (DMS); osmoadaption
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gebser, B.; Pohnert, G. Synchronized Regulation of Different Zwitterionic Metabolites in the Osmoadaption of Phytoplankton. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2168-2182.

AMA Style

Gebser B, Pohnert G. Synchronized Regulation of Different Zwitterionic Metabolites in the Osmoadaption of Phytoplankton. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(6):2168-2182.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gebser, Björn; Pohnert, Georg. 2013. "Synchronized Regulation of Different Zwitterionic Metabolites in the Osmoadaption of Phytoplankton." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 6: 2168-2182.



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