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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(6), 2154-2167; doi:10.3390/md11062154
Article

Cembrane Derivatives from the Soft Corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis

1,2,†
, 1,2,†
, 1,2
, 3
, 4
, 5
, 6
, 7
, 2
, 2,4
, 8,9,10,*  and 1,2,4,11,*
1 Graduate Institute of Marine Biotechnology and Department of Life Science and Institute of Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Pingtung 944, Taiwan 2 National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung 944, Taiwan 3 Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan 4 Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources and Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan 5 Department of Neurosurgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan 6 Graduate Institute of Food Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan 7 Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan 8 School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan 9 Chinese Medicine Research and Development Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan 10 Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan 11 Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2013 / Revised: 20 May 2013 / Accepted: 5 June 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
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Abstract

A new norcembranoidal diterpene, 1-epi-sinulanorcembranolide A (1), and a new cembranoidal diterpene, flexibilin D (2), were isolated from the soft corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis, respectively. The structures of new metabolites 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, and compound 2 was found to significantly inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 proteins of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, S. flexibilis yielded a known cembrane, 5-dehydrosinulariolide (3); the structure, including its absolute stereochemistry, was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.
Keywords: cembrane; norcembrane; Sinularia flexibilis; Sinularia gaweli; X-ray; anti-inflammatory activity cembrane; norcembrane; Sinularia flexibilis; Sinularia gaweli; X-ray; anti-inflammatory activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, L.-C.; Yen, W.-H.; Su, J.-H.; Chiang, M.Y.-N.; Wen, Z.-H.; Chen, W.-F.; Lu, T.-J.; Chang, Y.-W.; Chen, Y.-H.; Wang, W.-H.; Wu, Y.-C.; Sung, P.-J. Cembrane Derivatives from the Soft Corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2154-2167.

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