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Cembrane Derivatives from the Soft Corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis
Graduate Institute of Marine Biotechnology and Department of Life Science and Institute of Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Pingtung 944, Taiwan
National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung 944, Taiwan
Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources and Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
Department of Neurosurgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Food Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan
School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
Chinese Medicine Research and Development Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2013; in revised form: 20 May 2013 / Accepted: 5 June 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
Abstract: A new norcembranoidal diterpene, 1-epi-sinulanorcembranolide A (1), and a new cembranoidal diterpene, flexibilin D (2), were isolated from the soft corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis, respectively. The structures of new metabolites 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, and compound 2 was found to significantly inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 proteins of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, S. flexibilis yielded a known cembrane, 5-dehydrosinulariolide (3); the structure, including its absolute stereochemistry, was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.
Keywords: cembrane; norcembrane; Sinularia flexibilis; Sinularia gaweli; X-ray; anti-inflammatory activity
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Hu, L.-C.; Yen, W.-H.; Su, J.-H.; Chiang, M.Y.-N.; Wen, Z.-H.; Chen, W.-F.; Lu, T.-J.; Chang, Y.-W.; Chen, Y.-H.; Wang, W.-H.; Wu, Y.-C.; Sung, P.-J. Cembrane Derivatives from the Soft Corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2154-2167.
Hu L-C, Yen W-H, Su J-H, Chiang MY-N, Wen Z-H, Chen W-F, Lu T-J, Chang Y-W, Chen Y-H, Wang W-H, Wu Y-C, Sung P-J. Cembrane Derivatives from the Soft Corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(6):2154-2167.
Hu, Li-Chung; Yen, Wei-Hsuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Chiang, Michael Y.-N.; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu; Lu, Ting-Jang; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chen, Yung-Husan; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sung, Ping-Jyun. 2013. "Cembrane Derivatives from the Soft Corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 6: 2154-2167.