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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(6), 2069-2112; doi:10.3390/md11062069
Review

Protease Inhibitors from Marine Venomous Animals and Their Counterparts in Terrestrial Venomous Animals

 and *
Received: 19 April 2013; in revised form: 28 May 2013 / Accepted: 30 May 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Peptides and Their Mimetics)
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Abstract: The Kunitz-type protease inhibitors are the best-characterized family of serine protease inhibitors, probably due to their abundance in several organisms. These inhibitors consist of a chain of ~60 amino acid residues stabilized by three disulfide bridges, and was first observed in the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-like protease inhibitors, which strongly inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin. In this review we present the protease inhibitors (PIs) described to date from marine venomous animals, such as from sea anemone extracts and Conus venom, as well as their counterparts in terrestrial venomous animals, such as snakes, scorpions, spiders, Anurans, and Hymenopterans. More emphasis was given to the Kunitz-type inhibitors, once they are found in all these organisms. Their biological sources, specificity against different proteases, and other molecular blanks (being also K+ channel blockers) are presented, followed by their molecular diversity. Whereas sea anemone, snakes and other venomous animals present mainly Kunitz-type inhibitors, PIs from Anurans present the major variety in structure length and number of Cys residues, with at least six distinguishable classes. A representative alignment of PIs from these venomous animals shows that, despite eventual differences in Cys assignment, the key-residues for the protease inhibitory activity in all of them occupy similar positions in primary sequence. The key-residues for the K+ channel blocking activity was also compared.
Keywords: protease inhibitor; Kunitz-type; serine protease; toxin; trypsin; chymotrypsin; venom protease inhibitor; Kunitz-type; serine protease; toxin; trypsin; chymotrypsin; venom
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mourão, C.B.F.; Schwartz, E.F. Protease Inhibitors from Marine Venomous Animals and Their Counterparts in Terrestrial Venomous Animals. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2069-2112.

AMA Style

Mourão CBF, Schwartz EF. Protease Inhibitors from Marine Venomous Animals and Their Counterparts in Terrestrial Venomous Animals. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(6):2069-2112.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mourão, Caroline B.F.; Schwartz, Elisabeth F. 2013. "Protease Inhibitors from Marine Venomous Animals and Their Counterparts in Terrestrial Venomous Animals." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 6: 2069-2112.



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