Next Article in Journal
Production and Isolation of Azaspiracid-1 and -2 from Azadinium spinosum Culture in Pilot Scale Photobioreactors
Previous Article in Journal
Sinularones A–I, New Cyclopentenone and Butenolide Derivatives from a Marine Soft Coral Sinularia sp. and Their Antifouling Activity
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(6), 1345-1359; doi:10.3390/md10061345

SD118-Xanthocillin X (1), a Novel Marine Agent Extracted from Penicillium commune, Induces Autophagy through the Inhibition of the MEK/ERK Pathway

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Road, Shanghai 200433, China
Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
PET (Positron Emission Computed Tomography) Center, General Hospital of Chengdu Military Command, Chengdu, Sichuan 610083, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 April 2012 / Revised: 29 May 2012 / Accepted: 30 May 2012 / Published: 11 June 2012
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1777 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  


A compound named SD118-xanthocillin X (1) (C18H12N2O2), isolated from Penicillium commune in a deep-sea sediment sample, has been shown to inhibit the growth of several cancer cell lines in vitro. In the present study, we employed a growth inhibition assay and apoptotic analysis to identify the biological effect and detailed mechanism of SD118-xanthocillin X (1) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. SD118-xanthocillin X (1) demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of HepG2 cells and caused slight cellular apoptosis and significantly induced autophagy. Autophagy was detected as early as 12 h by the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-I) to LC3-II, following cleavage and lipid addition to LC3-I. The pharmacological autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely attenuates the growth inhibition and autophagic effect of SD118-xanthocillin X (1) in HepG2 cells. Our data also indicated that the autophagic effect of SD118-xanthocillin X (1) occurs via the down-regulation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and the up-regulated class III PI3K/Beclin 1 signaling pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: SD118-xanthocillin X (1); autophagy; apoptosis; ERK; Beclin 1 SD118-xanthocillin X (1); autophagy; apoptosis; ERK; Beclin 1

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Y.; Chen, H.; Shang, Z.; Jiao, B.; Yuan, B.; Sun, W.; Wang, B.; Miao, M.; Huang, C. SD118-Xanthocillin X (1), a Novel Marine Agent Extracted from Penicillium commune, Induces Autophagy through the Inhibition of the MEK/ERK Pathway. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 1345-1359.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top