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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2492-2508; doi:10.3390/md10112492
Article

Subereamolline A as a Potent Breast Cancer Migration, Invasion and Proliferation Inhibitor and Bioactive Dibrominated Alkaloids from the Red Sea Sponge Pseudoceratina arabica

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Received: 17 September 2012; in revised form: 18 October 2012 / Accepted: 19 October 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
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Abstract: A new collection of several Red Sea sponges was investigated for the discovery of potential breast cancer migration inhibitors. Extracts of the Verongid sponges Pseudoceratina arabica and Suberea mollis were selected. Bioassay-directed fractionation of both sponges, using the wound-healing assay, resulted into the isolation of several new and known brominated alkaloids. Active fractions of the sponge Pseudoceratina arabica afforded five new alkaloids, ceratinines A–E (26), together with the known alkaloids moloka’iamine (1), hydroxymoloka’iamine (7) and moloka’iakitamide (8). The active fraction of the sponge Suberea mollis afforded the three known alkaloids subereamolline A (9), aerothionin (10) and homoaerothionin (11). Ceratinine B (3) possesses an unprecedented 5,7-dibrominated dihydroindole moiety with an epoxy ring on the side chain of a fully substituted aromatic moiety. Ceratinines D (5) and E (6) possess a terminal formamide moiety at the ethylamine side chain. Subereamolline A (9) potently inhibited the migration and invasion of the highly metastatic human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 at the nanomolar doses. Subereamolline A and related brominated alkaloids are novel scaffolds appropriate for further future use for the control of metastatic breast cancer.
Keywords: verongid sponges; Pseudoceratina arabica; Suberea mollis; subereamolline A; brominated alkaloids; breast cancer; antimigration and anti-invasion assays verongid sponges; Pseudoceratina arabica; Suberea mollis; subereamolline A; brominated alkaloids; breast cancer; antimigration and anti-invasion assays
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shaala, L.A.; Youssef, D.T.A.; Sulaiman, M.; Behery, F.A.; Foudah, A.I.; Sayed, K.A.E. Subereamolline A as a Potent Breast Cancer Migration, Invasion and Proliferation Inhibitor and Bioactive Dibrominated Alkaloids from the Red Sea Sponge Pseudoceratina arabica. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 2492-2508.

AMA Style

Shaala LA, Youssef DTA, Sulaiman M, Behery FA, Foudah AI, Sayed KAE. Subereamolline A as a Potent Breast Cancer Migration, Invasion and Proliferation Inhibitor and Bioactive Dibrominated Alkaloids from the Red Sea Sponge Pseudoceratina arabica. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(11):2492-2508.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shaala, Lamiaa A.; Youssef, Diaa T.A.; Sulaiman, Mansour; Behery, Fathy A.; Foudah, Ahmed I.; Sayed, Khalid A.E. 2012. "Subereamolline A as a Potent Breast Cancer Migration, Invasion and Proliferation Inhibitor and Bioactive Dibrominated Alkaloids from the Red Sea Sponge Pseudoceratina arabica." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 11: 2492-2508.


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