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Pharmaceuticals 2016, 9(3), 41; doi:10.3390/ph9030041

Multiple Functions of the New Cytokine-Based Antimicrobial Peptide Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP)

1
Department of Oral Biology, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, PB 1052 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway
2
Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, BMC, Tornavägen 10, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden
3
Dermatology and Venereology, Skane University Hospital, Lasarettsgatan 15, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden
Present address: K.G. Jebsen Centre for Research on Influenza Vaccines, N-0450 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guangshun Wang
Received: 26 May 2016 / Revised: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 30 June 2016 / Published: 5 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Peptides: Expanded Activity Spectrum and Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3780 KB, uploaded 5 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a pleiotropic cytokine, hitherto mostly known to be involved in inflammatory responses and immunoregulation. The human tslp gene gives rise to two transcription and translation variants: a long form (lfTSLP) that is induced by inflammation, and a short, constitutively-expressed form (sfTSLP), that appears to be downregulated by inflammation. The TSLP forms can be produced by a number of cell types, including epithelial and dendritic cells (DCs). lfTSLP can activate mast cells, DCs, and T cells through binding to the lfTSLP receptor (TSLPR) and has a pro-inflammatory function. In contrast, sfTSLP inhibits cytokine secretion of DCs, but the receptor mediating this effect is unknown. Our recent studies have demonstrated that both forms of TSLP display potent antimicrobial activity, exceeding that of many other known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), with sfTSLP having the strongest effect. The AMP activity is primarily mediated by the C-terminal region of the protein and is localized within a 34-mer peptide (MKK34) that spans the C-terminal α-helical region in TSLP. Fluorescent studies of peptide-treated bacteria, electron microscopy, and liposome leakage models showed that MKK34 exerted membrane-disrupting effects comparable to those of LL-37. Expression of TSLP in skin, oral mucosa, salivary glands, and intestine is part of the defense barrier that aids in the control of both commensal and pathogenic microbes. View Full-Text
Keywords: TSLP; AMP; immunoregulation TSLP; AMP; immunoregulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bjerkan, L.; Sonesson, A.; Schenck, K. Multiple Functions of the New Cytokine-Based Antimicrobial Peptide Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP). Pharmaceuticals 2016, 9, 41.

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