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Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8(2), 151-175; doi:10.3390/ph8020151

Reactive Oxygen Species, Apoptosis, Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Inflammatory Diseases

1
Biotechnology and Structural Biology (BSB) Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa
2
Department of Biochemistry, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, PMB 5454, Ado-Ekiti 360001, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 25 March 2015 / Published: 2 April 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1080 KB, uploaded 2 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

Excessive free radical generation, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress in the biological system, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathological conditions associated with diverse human inflammatory diseases (HIDs). Although inflammation which is considered advantageous is a defensive mechanism in response to xenobiotics and foreign pathogen; as a result of cellular damage arising from oxidative stress, if uncontrolled, it may degenerate to chronic inflammation when the ROS levels exceed the antioxidant capacity. Therefore, in the normal resolution of inflammatory reactions, apoptosis is acknowledged to play a crucial role, while on the other hand, dysregulation in the induction of apoptosis by enhanced ROS production could also result in excessive apoptosis identified in the pathogenesis of HIDs. Apparently, a careful balance must be maintained in this complex environment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed in this review as an excellent candidate capable of playing prominent roles in maintaining this balance. Consequently, in novel drug design for the treatment and management of HIDs, AMPs are promising candidates owing to their size and multidimensional properties as well as their wide spectrum of activities and indications of reduced rate of resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial peptides; apoptosis; inflammation; mitochondrial damage; nuclear factor kappa B; reactive oxygen species antimicrobial peptides; apoptosis; inflammation; mitochondrial damage; nuclear factor kappa B; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oyinloye, B.E.; Adenowo, A.F.; Kappo, A.P. Reactive Oxygen Species, Apoptosis, Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Inflammatory Diseases. Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8, 151-175.

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