Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(2), 251-268; doi:10.3390/ph6020251

NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

1email, 1email, 1email and 1,2,* email
Received: 30 November 2012; in revised form: 29 January 2013 / Accepted: 29 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMDA Receptor Antagonists for Treatment of CNS Disorders)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modulators memantine and acamprosate, as well as the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine. Data collected to date suggest that direct NMDA receptor modulators have relatively limited efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction, and that partial agonism of NMDA receptors may have some efficacy with regards to extinction learning during cue exposure therapy. However, the lack of consistency in results to date clearly indicates that additional studies are needed, as are studies examining novel ligands with indirect mechanisms for altering NMDA receptor function.
Keywords: glutamate; N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor; glycine binding site; antagonist; partial agonist
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [304 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 8 February 2013 14:01 CET]
The original version is still available [460 KB, uploaded 6 February 2013 11:12 CET]

Export to BibTeX |

MDPI and ACS Style

Tomek, S.E.; Lacrosse, A.L.; Nemirovsky, N.E.; Olive, M.F. NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction. Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6, 251-268.

AMA Style

Tomek SE, Lacrosse AL, Nemirovsky NE, Olive MF. NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction. Pharmaceuticals. 2013; 6(2):251-268.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tomek, Seven E.; Lacrosse, Amber L.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Olive, M. F. 2013. "NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction." Pharmaceuticals 6, no. 2: 251-268.

Pharmaceuticals EISSN 1424-8247 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert