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Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Stilbenoid from Shorea gibbosa and Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Centre of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 Bangi Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2012; in revised form: 3 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the combined effects of stilbenoids from Shorea gibbosa and vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of nine pure compounds, five stilbenoid dimers ε-viniferin, ampelopsin A, balanocarpol, laevifonol and diptoindonesin G and four stilbenoid trimers a-viniferin, johorenol A, ampelopsin E and vaticanol G were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against ATCC 33591 and a HUKM clinical isolate. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for each active compound were determined using the serial microdilution and plate-streak techniques. The combined effect of stilbenoids with vancomycin against MRSA was evaluated using the checkerboard assay to determine their fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index values. The MIC value of a-viniferin on both MRSA strains was 100 μg/mL, whereas those of johorenol A on ATCC 33591 and HUKM strain were 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL, respectively. The MIC values of ampelopsin E and vaticanol G were higher than 400 μg/mL. Out of the five stilbenoid dimers, only ε-viniferin was capable of inhibiting the growth of both MRSA strains at MIC 400 μg/mL. The MBC value of ε-viniferin, a-viniferin and johorenol A showed bacteriostatic action against MRSA. The FIC index value of ε-viniferin and a-viniferin in combination with vancomycin showed an additive effect (0.5 < FIC ≤ 2.0) against both MRSA strains. Johorenol A-vancomycin combination was also additive against HUKM strain, but it showed synergistic interaction with vancomycin against ATCC 33591 (FIC < 0.5). Stilbenoid compounds from Shorea gibbosa have anti-MRSA activity and huge potential as an alternative phytotherapy in combating MRSA infections.
Keywords: Shorea gibbosa; FIC; stilbenoid; bacteriostatic activity; additivity; MRSA
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Basri, D.F.; Luoi, C.K.; Azmi, A.M.; Latip, J. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Stilbenoid from Shorea gibbosa and Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5, 1032-1043.
Basri DF, Luoi CK, Azmi AM, Latip J. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Stilbenoid from Shorea gibbosa and Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Pharmaceuticals. 2012; 5(9):1032-1043.
Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Luoi, Chan Kin; Azmi, Abdul Muin; Latip, Jalifah. 2012. "Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Stilbenoid from Shorea gibbosa and Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)." Pharmaceuticals 5, no. 9: 1032-1043.