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Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(9), 1032-1043; doi:10.3390/ph5091032
Article

Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Stilbenoid from Shorea gibbosa and Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

1,* , 1
,
1
 and
2
1 School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2 Centre of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 Bangi Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2012 / Revised: 3 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the combined effects of stilbenoids from Shorea gibbosa and vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of nine pure compounds, five stilbenoid dimers ε-viniferin, ampelopsin A, balanocarpol, laevifonol and diptoindonesin G and four stilbenoid trimers a-viniferin, johorenol A, ampelopsin E and vaticanol G were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against ATCC 33591 and a HUKM clinical isolate. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for each active compound were determined using the serial microdilution and plate-streak techniques. The combined effect of stilbenoids with vancomycin against MRSA was evaluated using the checkerboard assay to determine their fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index values. The MIC value of a-viniferin on both MRSA strains was 100 μg/mL, whereas those of johorenol A on ATCC 33591 and HUKM strain were 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL, respectively. The MIC values of ampelopsin E and vaticanol G were higher than 400 μg/mL. Out of the five stilbenoid dimers, only ε-viniferin was capable of inhibiting the growth of both MRSA strains at MIC 400 μg/mL. The MBC value of ε-viniferin, a-viniferin and johorenol A showed bacteriostatic action against MRSA. The FIC index value of ε-viniferin and a-viniferin in combination with vancomycin showed an additive effect (0.5 < FIC ≤ 2.0) against both MRSA strains. Johorenol A-vancomycin combination was also additive against HUKM strain, but it showed synergistic interaction with vancomycin against ATCC 33591 (FIC < 0.5). Stilbenoid compounds from Shorea gibbosa have anti-MRSA activity and huge potential as an alternative phytotherapy in combating MRSA infections.
Keywords: Shorea gibbosa; FIC; stilbenoid; bacteriostatic activity; additivity; MRSA Shorea gibbosa; FIC; stilbenoid; bacteriostatic activity; additivity; MRSA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Basri, D.F.; Luoi, C.K.; Azmi, A.M.; Latip, J. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Stilbenoid from Shorea gibbosa and Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5, 1032-1043.

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