Next Article in Journal
Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Latest Clinical Trials and Guidelines
Next Article in Special Issue
A Perspective on the Comparative Antileukemic Activity of 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Decitabine) and 5-Azacytidine (Vidaza)
Previous Article in Journal
On the Regulatory Approval Pathway of Biosimilar Products
Previous Article in Special Issue
DNA Methylation as Clinically Useful Biomarkers—Light at the End of the Tunnel
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(4), 369-383; doi:10.3390/ph5040369
Review

Epigenetic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

* ,
 and
Received: 29 February 2012; in revised form: 23 March 2012 / Accepted: 27 March 2012 / Published: 5 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Therapies and Biomarkers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [211 KB, uploaded 24 April 2012]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: The number of children with mild neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, has been recently increasing in advanced countries. This increase is probably caused by environmental factors rather than genetic factors, because it is unlikely that genetic mutation rates suddenly increased within a short period. Epigenetics is a mechanism that regulates gene expression, depending not on the underlying DNA sequence but on the chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins. Because mental stress can alter the epigenetic status in neuronal cells, environmental factors may alter brain function through epigenetic changes. However, one advantage of epigenetic changes is their reversibility. Therefore, diseases due to abnormal epigenetic regulation are theoretically treatable. In fact, several drugs for treating mental diseases are known to have restoring effects on aberrant epigenetic statuses, and a novel therapeutic strategy targeting gene has been developed. In this review, we discuss epigenetic mechanisms of congenital and acquired neurodevelopmental disorders, drugs with epigenetic effects, novel therapeutic strategies for epigenetic diseases, and future perspectives in epigenetic medicine.
Keywords: epigenetics; DNA methylation; histone modification; environmental factor; neurodevelopmental disease; reversible; drug; therapy epigenetics; DNA methylation; histone modification; environmental factor; neurodevelopmental disease; reversible; drug; therapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Kubota, T.; Takae, H.; Miyake, K. Epigenetic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives for Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5, 369-383.

AMA Style

Kubota T, Takae H, Miyake K. Epigenetic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives for Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Pharmaceuticals. 2012; 5(4):369-383.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kubota, Takeo; Takae, Hirasawa; Miyake, Kunio. 2012. "Epigenetic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives for Neurodevelopmental Disorders." Pharmaceuticals 5, no. 4: 369-383.


Pharmaceuticals EISSN 1424-8247 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert