Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(7), 1019-1031; doi:10.3390/ph4071019
Review

Echinacea—A Source of Potent Antivirals for Respiratory Virus Infections

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Received: 8 June 2011; in revised form: 30 June 2011 / Accepted: 7 July 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Extracts of Echinacea species have been used traditionally in North America for the control of symptoms of colds, influenza, and other diseases, and some of them have become very popular as “herbal medicines”. Recent studies have revealed that preparations derived from certain species and plant parts, but not all of them, possess potent antiviral activities, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, particularly against membrane-containing viruses. Thus all strains of human and avian influenza viruses tested (including a Tamiflu-resistant strain), as well as herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinoviruses, were very sensitive to a standardized Echinacea purpurea preparation. In mechanistic studies the influenza virus-specific hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were inhibited. In addition some extracts displayed anti-inflammatory activity in virus-infected cells, and numerous other effects on the expression of cellular genes. Multiple components, either discrete compounds or mixtures, appeared to be responsible for the various antiviral activities.
Keywords: antiviral; Echinacea; phytomedicine; respiratory viruses; respiratory infection; anti-inflammatory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hudson, J.; Vimalanathan, S. Echinacea—A Source of Potent Antivirals for Respiratory Virus Infections. Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4, 1019-1031.

AMA Style

Hudson J, Vimalanathan S. Echinacea—A Source of Potent Antivirals for Respiratory Virus Infections. Pharmaceuticals. 2011; 4(7):1019-1031.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hudson, James; Vimalanathan, Selvarani. 2011. "Echinacea—A Source of Potent Antivirals for Respiratory Virus Infections." Pharmaceuticals 4, no. 7: 1019-1031.

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