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Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(4), 1108-1121; doi:10.3390/ph3041108
Article

Ingested Type I Interferon—State of the Art as Treatment for Autoimmunity Part 2

Received: 25 January 2010; in revised form: 19 March 2010 / Accepted: 1 April 2010 / Published: 14 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferons)
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Abstract: We have proposed a unifying hypothesis of the etiopathogenesis of autoimmunity that defines autoimmunity as a type I interferon (IFN) immunodeficiency syndrome. We have examined toxicity and potential efficacy in two phase I (type 1 diabetes [T1D], multiple sclerosis [MS]) and phase II clinical trials in T1D and MS. In a phase I open label trial in T1D, ingested IFN-alpha preserved residual beta-cell function in recent onset patients. In a second phase I trial in MS, there was a significant decrease in peripheral blood mononuclear cell IL-2 and IFN-gamma production after ingesting IFN-alpha. In a phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in MS, 10,000 IU ingested IFN-alpha significantly decreased gadolinium enhancements compared to the placebo group at month 5. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma cytokine secretion in the 10,000 IU group at month 5 showed a significant decrease that corresponded with the effect of ingested IFN-alpha on decreasing gadolinium enhancements. In a phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in T1D, patients in the 5,000 unit hrIFN-alpha treatment group maintained more beta-cell function one year after study enrollment compared to individuals in the placebo group. Ingested IFN-alpha was not toxic in these clinical trials. These studies suggest that ingested IFN-alpha may have a potential role in the treatment of autoimmunity.
Keywords: autoimmunity; multiple sclerosis; Type I diabetes; Type I interferon; GALT; protein ingestion autoimmunity; multiple sclerosis; Type I diabetes; Type I interferon; GALT; protein ingestion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brod, S.A. Ingested Type I Interferon—State of the Art as Treatment for Autoimmunity Part 2. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 1108-1121.

AMA Style

Brod SA. Ingested Type I Interferon—State of the Art as Treatment for Autoimmunity Part 2. Pharmaceuticals. 2010; 3(4):1108-1121.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brod, Staley A. 2010. "Ingested Type I Interferon—State of the Art as Treatment for Autoimmunity Part 2." Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 4: 1108-1121.


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