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Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph11030062

Potential Inherent Stimulation of the Innate Immune System by Nucleic Acid Aptamers and Possible Corrective Approaches

Operational Technologies Corporation, 4100 NW Loop 410, Suite 100, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 23 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamer-Based Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

It is well known that unmethylated 2′-deoxycytidine-phosphate-2′-guanine (CpG) sequences alone or in longer DNA and RNA oligonucleotides can act like pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger the innate immune response leading to deleterious cytokine production via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Clearly, such CpG or CpG-containing sequences in aptamers intended for therapy could present very damaging side effects to patients. Previous antisense oligonucleotide developers were faced with the same basic CpG dilemma and devised not only avoidance, but other effective strategies from which current aptamer developers can learn to ameliorate or eliminate damaging CpG effects. These strategies include obvious methylation of cytosines in the aptamer structure, as long as it does not affect aptamer binding in vivo, truncation of the aptamer to its essential binding site, backbone modifications, co-administration of antagonistic or suppressive oligonucleotides, or other novel drugs under development to lessen the toxic CpG effect on innate immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: aptamer; CpG; innate immunity; methylation; oligonucleotide; Toll-like receptors aptamer; CpG; innate immunity; methylation; oligonucleotide; Toll-like receptors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Bruno, J.G. Potential Inherent Stimulation of the Innate Immune System by Nucleic Acid Aptamers and Possible Corrective Approaches. Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11, 62.

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