Next Article in Journal
SAW RFID-Tags for Mass-Sensitive Detection of Humidity and Vapors
Next Article in Special Issue
An Evolution Based Biosensor Receptor DNA Sequence Generation Algorithm
Previous Article in Journal
Photoacoustic Techniques for Trace Gas Sensing Based on Semiconductor Laser Sources
Previous Article in Special Issue
Circular High-Q Resonating Isotropic Strain Sensors with Large Shift of Resonance Frequency under Stress
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9741-9804; doi:10.3390/s91209741

Photoreactions and Structural Changes of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin

Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2009 / Revised: 14 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Sensors and Biosensors)


Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is an archaeal-type rhodopsin found in eubacteria. The gene encoding ASR forms a single operon with ASRT (ASR transducer) which is a 14 kDa soluble protein, suggesting that ASR functions as a photochromic sensor by activating the soluble transducer. This article reviews the detailed photoreaction processes of ASR, which were studied by low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The former research reveals that the retinal isomerization is similar to bacteriorhodopsin (BR), but the hydrogen-bonding network around the Schiff base and cytoplasmic region is different. The latter study shows the stable photoproduct of the all-trans form is 100% 13-cis, and that of the 13-cis form is 100% all-trans. These results suggest that the structural changes of ASR in the cytoplasmic domain play important roles in the activation of the transducer protein, and photochromic reaction is optimized for its sensor function.
Keywords: photosensor; rhodopsin; photochromism; FTIR spectroscopy; UV-visible spectroscopy photosensor; rhodopsin; photochromism; FTIR spectroscopy; UV-visible spectroscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Kawanabe, A.; Kandori, H. Photoreactions and Structural Changes of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin. Sensors 2009, 9, 9741-9804.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert