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Photoreactions and Structural Changes of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin
Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2009; in revised form: 14 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
Abstract: Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is an archaeal-type rhodopsin found in eubacteria. The gene encoding ASR forms a single operon with ASRT (ASR transducer) which is a 14 kDa soluble protein, suggesting that ASR functions as a photochromic sensor by activating the soluble transducer. This article reviews the detailed photoreaction processes of ASR, which were studied by low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The former research reveals that the retinal isomerization is similar to bacteriorhodopsin (BR), but the hydrogen-bonding network around the Schiff base and cytoplasmic region is different. The latter study shows the stable photoproduct of the all-trans form is 100% 13-cis, and that of the 13-cis form is 100% all-trans. These results suggest that the structural changes of ASR in the cytoplasmic domain play important roles in the activation of the transducer protein, and photochromic reaction is optimized for its sensor function.
Keywords: photosensor; rhodopsin; photochromism; FTIR spectroscopy; UV-visible spectroscopy
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kawanabe, A.; Kandori, H. Photoreactions and Structural Changes of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin. Sensors 2009, 9, 9741-9804.
Kawanabe A, Kandori H. Photoreactions and Structural Changes of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin. Sensors. 2009; 9(12):9741-9804.
Kawanabe, Akira; Kandori, Hideki. 2009. "Photoreactions and Structural Changes of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin." Sensors 9, no. 12: 9741-9804.