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Sensors 2008, 8(7), 4282-4295; doi:10.3390/s8074282
Article

Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigens Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

1, 1, 1,* , 2, 3 and 3
Received: 29 May 2008; in revised form: 7 July 2008 / Accepted: 9 July 2008 / Published: 18 July 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioanalysis in Vivo/in Vitro)
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Abstract: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an oncofoetal cell-surface glycoprotein that serves as an important tumor marker for colorectal and some other carcinomas. In this work, a CEA immunoassay using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor has been developed. SPR could provide label-free, real-time detection with high sensitivity, though its ability to detect CEA in human serum was highly dependent on the analytical conditions employed. We investigated the influences of various analytical conditions including immobilization methods for anti-CEA antibody and composition of sensor surface on the selective and sensitive detection of CEA. The results show that anti-CEA antibody immobilized via Protein A or Protein G caused a large increase in the resonance signal upon injection of human serum due to the interactions with IgGs in serum, while direct covalent immobilization of anti-CEA antibody could substantially reduce it. An optimized protocol based on further kinetic analysis and the use of 2nd and 3rd antibodies for the sandwich assay allowed detecting spiked CEA in human serum as low as 25 ng/mL. Furthermore, a self-assembled monolayer of mixed ethylene-glycol terminated alkanethiols on gold was found to have a comparable ability in detecting CEA as CM5 with thick dextran matrix and C1 with short flat layer on gold.
Keywords: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR); early detection of cancer; carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR); early detection of cancer; carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Su, F.; Xu, C.; Taya, M.; Murayama, K.; Shinohara, Y.; Nishimura, S.-I. Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigens Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor. Sensors 2008, 8, 4282-4295.

AMA Style

Su F, Xu C, Taya M, Murayama K, Shinohara Y, Nishimura S-I. Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigens Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor. Sensors. 2008; 8(7):4282-4295.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Su, Fengyu; Xu, Chunye; Taya, Minoru; Murayama, Kimie; Shinohara, Yasuro; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro. 2008. "Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigens Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor." Sensors 8, no. 7: 4282-4295.



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