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Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigens Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor
Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems, University of Washington, Box 352600, Seattle, WA98195, USA
Division of Biomembrane Research, Pacific Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, WA98119, USA
Laboratory of Advanced Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2008; in revised form: 7 July 2008 / Accepted: 9 July 2008 / Published: 18 July 2008
Abstract: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an oncofoetal cell-surface glycoprotein that serves as an important tumor marker for colorectal and some other carcinomas. In this work, a CEA immunoassay using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor has been developed. SPR could provide label-free, real-time detection with high sensitivity, though its ability to detect CEA in human serum was highly dependent on the analytical conditions employed. We investigated the influences of various analytical conditions including immobilization methods for anti-CEA antibody and composition of sensor surface on the selective and sensitive detection of CEA. The results show that anti-CEA antibody immobilized via Protein A or Protein G caused a large increase in the resonance signal upon injection of human serum due to the interactions with IgGs in serum, while direct covalent immobilization of anti-CEA antibody could substantially reduce it. An optimized protocol based on further kinetic analysis and the use of 2nd and 3rd antibodies for the sandwich assay allowed detecting spiked CEA in human serum as low as 25 ng/mL. Furthermore, a self-assembled monolayer of mixed ethylene-glycol terminated alkanethiols on gold was found to have a comparable ability in detecting CEA as CM5 with thick dextran matrix and C1 with short flat layer on gold.
Keywords: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR); early detection of cancer; carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
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MDPI and ACS Style
Su, F.; Xu, C.; Taya, M.; Murayama, K.; Shinohara, Y.; Nishimura, S.-I. Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigens Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor. Sensors 2008, 8, 4282-4295.
Su F, Xu C, Taya M, Murayama K, Shinohara Y, Nishimura S-I. Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigens Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor. Sensors. 2008; 8(7):4282-4295.
Su, Fengyu; Xu, Chunye; Taya, Minoru; Murayama, Kimie; Shinohara, Yasuro; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro. 2008. "Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigens Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor." Sensors 8, no. 7: 4282-4295.