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Sensors 2008, 8(5), 3257-3270; doi:10.3390/s8053257
Article

Opto-Electric Cellular Biosensor Using Optically Transparent Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Electrodes

1, 1, 2, 1, 2 and 1,*
Received: 26 January 2008; Accepted: 16 May 2008 / Published: 19 May 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Biosensors)
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Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) biosensors are used to perform simultaneous optical and electrical measurements in order to examine the dynamic cellular attachment, spreading, and proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) as well as cytotoxic effects when exposed to cytochalasin D. A detailed description of the fabrication of these sensors is provided and their superior optical characteristics are qualitatively shown using four different microscopic images. Differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM) images were acquired simultaneously with micro-impedance measurements as a function of frequency and time. A digital image processing algorithm quantified the cell-covered electrode area as a function of time. In addition, cytotoxicity effects, produced by the toxic agent cytochalasin D, were examined using micro-impedance measurements, confocal microscopy images of stained actin-filaments, and interference reflection contrast microscopy (IRCM) capable of examining the bottom morphology of a cell. The results of this study show (1) the dynamic optical and electrical cellular characteristics using optically thin ITO biosensors; (2) qualitative agreement between cell-covered electrode area and electrical impedance during cellular attachment; (3) in vitro cytotoxicity detection of ECs due to 3 mM cytochalasin D. The present opto-electric biosensor system is unique in that a simultaneous and integrated cellular analysis is possible for a variety of living cells.
Keywords: Biosensors; Indium Tin Oxide (ITO); In Vitro Cytotoxicity; Optical Imaging; Micro-Impedance Detection; and Endothelial Cells Biosensors; Indium Tin Oxide (ITO); In Vitro Cytotoxicity; Optical Imaging; Micro-Impedance Detection; and Endothelial Cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, C.K.; Margraves, C.H.; Jun, S.I.; English, A.E.; Rack, P.D.; Kihm, K.D. Opto-Electric Cellular Biosensor Using Optically Transparent Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Electrodes. Sensors 2008, 8, 3257-3270.

AMA Style

Choi CK, Margraves CH, Jun SI, English AE, Rack PD, Kihm KD. Opto-Electric Cellular Biosensor Using Optically Transparent Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Electrodes. Sensors. 2008; 8(5):3257-3270.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choi, Chang K.; Margraves, Chuck H.; Jun, Seung I.; English, Anthony E.; Rack, Philip D.; Kihm, Kenneth D. 2008. "Opto-Electric Cellular Biosensor Using Optically Transparent Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Electrodes." Sensors 8, no. 5: 3257-3270.



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