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Sensors 2008, 8(4), 2188-2207; doi:10.3390/s8042188

Identification of Metals (Heavy and Radioactive) in Drinking Water by an Indirect Analysis Method Based on Scale Tests

1
Faculty of Agriculture, 11080 Belgrade-Zemun, St. Nemanjina 6, Serbia
2
Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other mineral Raw Materials (ITNMS), 11000 Belgrade, 86 Franchet d’Esperey, Serbia
3
Faculty of Technology, University of Serbian Sarajevo, 76000 Zvornik, St. Karakaj b.b. Bosnia&Herzegovina
4
KCS Institute of Occupational and Radiological Helath ”Dr Dragomir Karajović”, 11000 Belgrade, St. Deligradska 29, Serbia
5
City Public Institute and Environment Protection, 24000 Subotica, St. Zmaj Jovina 30, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2008 / Accepted: 25 March 2008 / Published: 28 March 2008
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Abstract

The analysis of water quality, regarding the content of metals, especially heavy and radioactive ones, has been carried out in an indirect way, by testing scale formed in a hot-water heater, using water from the water-supply network of the city of Belgrade – the district of New Belgrade. The determination of the composition and the structure of the scale has resulted in its complete identification, and its crystallochemical formula has been defined. It has unequivocally been established that the obtained results are within the tolerance boundary with the results acquired by a conventional analysis of water, when it is a matter of very low concentrations. The presence of radioactive elements of uranium and strontium in a scale sample has been found and the way of their penetrating its composition and structure has been explained. Applying the fractional extraction method, uranium has been established to be of an anthropogenic origin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Drinking water; scale; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction analysis and gamma-spectrometry. Drinking water; scale; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction analysis and gamma-spectrometry.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rajkovic, M.B.; Lacnjevac, C.M.; Ralevic, N.R.; Stojanović, M.D.; Tosković, D.V.; Pantelic, G.K.; Ristic, N.M.; Jovanic, S. Identification of Metals (Heavy and Radioactive) in Drinking Water by an Indirect Analysis Method Based on Scale Tests. Sensors 2008, 8, 2188-2207.

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