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Biosensor Techniques Used for Determination of Telomerase Activity in Cancer Cells
Department of Chemistry & Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 December 2007 / Accepted: 15 January 2008 / Published: 21 January 2008
Abstract: Measuring telomerase activity has proven successful for the determination of cancer in malignant somatic cells. Early conventional methods for the detection of telomerase activity include in vitro analysis via a primer extension assay, and the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. TRAP incorporates the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) step to increase the sensitivity of a given sample. However, research suggests that the TRAP technique suffers from false negative results, caused by failure of its PCR step. Other limitations of TRAP include the post-PCR steps involving polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which are time inefficient. Thus, various efforts have been made to eliminate the PCR step of TRAP by using a variety of biosensor detection devices. This review mainly focuses on these alternatives including: optical, electrochemical, magnetic, and nanowire conductive signaling techniques to measure the telomerase activity produced via label free biosensor assay—via biocatalytic labels involving beacons, DNAzyme, ferrocenyl-naphthalene diimides, avidin-alkaline phosphatase and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). These biosensor techniques are sensitive and provide precise and rapid results in the detection of telomerase activity.
Keywords: Biosensor; telomerase; electrochemical detection; biocatalytic labels; TRAP assay
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kulla, E.; Katz, E. Biosensor Techniques Used for Determination of Telomerase Activity in Cancer Cells. Sensors 2008, 8, 347-369.
Kulla E, Katz E. Biosensor Techniques Used for Determination of Telomerase Activity in Cancer Cells. Sensors. 2008; 8(1):347-369.
Kulla, Eliona; Katz, Evgeny. 2008. "Biosensor Techniques Used for Determination of Telomerase Activity in Cancer Cells." Sensors 8, no. 1: 347-369.