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Sensors 2007, 7(1), 1-15; doi:10.3390/s7010001
Article

Determination of Critical Conditions for the Formation of Electrodeposited Copper Structures Suitable for Electrodes in Electrochemical Devices

1,* , 1,2
, 1
 and 1
1 ICTM – Institute of Electrochemistry, University of Belgrade, Njegoseva 12, P.O.B. 473, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia 2 Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, P.O.B. 3503, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2006 / Revised: 12 December 2006 / Accepted: 15 December 2006 / Published: 1 January 2007
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Abstract

Electrodeposition of copper from acid sulfate solutions at overpotentials on theplateau of the limiting diffusion current density and at higher overpotentials wasexamined. The average current efficiencies for hydrogen evolution reaction aredetermined by a measurement of the quantity of evolved hydrogen and the overallelectrodeposition current as a function of electrodeposition time, while morphologies ofcopper deposits are examined by the use of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM)technique. It is found that the open and porous structures of copper deposits (denoted andas honeycomb – like copper structures), suitable for electrodes in electrochemical devicessuch as fuel cells and chemical sensors, were reached by electrodeposition processesfrom solutions with the lower concentrations of Cu (II) ions (0.15 M CuSO4 and less in0.50 M H2SO4) at overpotentials outside the plateau of the limiting diffusion currentdensity at which the quantity of evolved hydrogen was enough to change hydrodynamicconditions in the near – electrode layer. The main characteristics of these copperstructures were craters or holes formed primarily due to the attachment hydrogen bubbleswith agglomerates of copper grains between them.
Keywords: Electrodeposition; Copper; Hydrogen evolution; Sensors; Scanning electron microscope (SEM) Electrodeposition; Copper; Hydrogen evolution; Sensors; Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Nikolic, N.D.; Popov, K.I.; Pavlovic, L.J.; Pavlovic, M.G. Determination of Critical Conditions for the Formation of Electrodeposited Copper Structures Suitable for Electrodes in Electrochemical Devices. Sensors 2007, 7, 1-15.

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