Sensors 2005, 5(1), 4-37; doi:10.3390/s5010004
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Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring

Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185, USA.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2004; Accepted: 1 December 2004 / Published: 28 February 2005
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Environmental Monitoring)
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Abstract: This paper surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and longtermenvironmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identifycompatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. Thecontaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories:(1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biologicalcontaminants. United States regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g.,drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements arederived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according tocontaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmentalmonitoring applications is discussed.
Keywords: environmental monitoring; sensors; regulatory standards.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, C.K.; Robinson, A.; Miller, D.R.; Davis, M.J. Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring. Sensors 2005, 5, 4-37.

AMA Style

Ho CK, Robinson A, Miller DR, Davis MJ. Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring. Sensors. 2005; 5(1):4-37.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ho, Clifford K.; Robinson, Alex; Miller, David R.; Davis, Mary J. 2005. "Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring." Sensors 5, no. 1: 4-37.

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