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Sensors 2005, 5(1), 4-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/s5010004

Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring

Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185, USA.
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Received: 31 August 2004 / Accepted: 1 December 2004 / Published: 28 February 2005
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Environmental Monitoring)
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Abstract

This paper surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and longtermenvironmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identifycompatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. Thecontaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories:(1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biologicalcontaminants. United States regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g.,drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements arederived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according tocontaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmentalmonitoring applications is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental monitoring; sensors; regulatory standards. environmental monitoring; sensors; regulatory standards.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Ho, C.K.; Robinson, A.; Miller, D.R.; Davis, M.J. Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring. Sensors 2005, 5, 4-37.

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