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A Sentinel Sensor Network for Hydrogen Sensing
Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 217 Materials Research Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA
SenTech Corporation, 200 Innovation Boulevard Suite 236, State College, PA 16803, USA
Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Dept. of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Division of Newborn Medicine, Penn State Children's Hospital, The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 February 2003; Accepted: 20 February 2003 / Published: 21 February 2003
Abstract: A wireless sensor network is presented for in-situ monitoring of atmospheric hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen sensor network consists of multiple sensor nodes, equipped with titania nanotube hydrogen sensors, distributed throughout the area of interest; each node is both sensor, and data-relay station that enables extended wide area monitoring without a consequent increase of node power and thus node size. The hydrogen sensor is fabricated from a sheet of highly ordered titania nanotubes, made by anodization of a titanium thick film, to which platinum electrodes are connected. The electrical resistance of the hydrogen sensor varies from 245 Ω at 500 ppm hydrogen, to 10.23 kΩ at 0 ppm hydrogen (pure nitrogen environment). The measured resistance is converted to voltage, 0.049 V at 500 ppm to 2.046 V at 0 ppm, by interface circuitry. The microcontroller of the sensor node digitizes the voltage and transmits the digital information, using intermediate nodes as relays, to a host node that downloads measurement data to a computer for display. This paper describes the design and operation of the sensor network, the titania nanotube hydrogen sensors with an apparent low level resolution of approximately 0.05 ppm, and their integration in one widely useful device.
Keywords: Sensor network; Sensor node; Sensor array; Hydrogen; Sensor; Nanotube
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Grimes, C.A.; Ong, K.G.; Varghese, O.K.; Yang, X.; Mor, G.; Paulose, M.; Dickey, E.C.; Ruan, C.; Pishko, M.V.; Kendig, J.W.; Mason, A.J. A Sentinel Sensor Network for Hydrogen Sensing. Sensors 2003, 3, 69-82.
Grimes CA, Ong KG, Varghese OK, Yang X, Mor G, Paulose M, Dickey EC, Ruan C, Pishko MV, Kendig JW, Mason AJ. A Sentinel Sensor Network for Hydrogen Sensing. Sensors. 2003; 3(3):69-82.
Grimes, Craig A.; Ong, Keat G.; Varghese, Oomman K.; Yang, Xiping; Mor, G.; Paulose, Maggie; Dickey, Elizabeth C.; Ruan, Chuanmin; Pishko, Michael V.; Kendig, James W.; Mason, Andrew J. 2003. "A Sentinel Sensor Network for Hydrogen Sensing." Sensors 3, no. 3: 69-82.