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Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2737;

Integration of Underwater Radioactivity and Acoustic Sensors into an Open Sea Near Real-Time Multi-Parametric Observation System

Institute of Marine Science, National Research Council of Italy, Via de Marini 6, 16149 Genova, Italy
Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, 19013 Anavyssos, Greece
National Observatory of Athens, IERSD, 15236 Athens, Greece
Department of Water Resources, School of Civil Engineering, NTUA, 10682 Athens, Greece
HoRST S.P. Private Company, Alepou 49100 Corfu, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Ocean: Emerging Research Advances, Prospects and Challenges)
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This work deals with the installation of two smart in-situ sensors (for underwater radioactivity and underwater sound monitoring) on the Western 1-Mediterranean Moored Multisensor Array (W1-M3A) ocean observing system that is equipped with all appropriate modules for continuous, long-term and real-time operation. All necessary tasks for their integration are described such as, the upgrade of the sensors for interoperable and power-efficient operation, the conversion of data in homogeneous and standard format, the automated pre-process of the raw data, the real-time integration of data and metadata (related to data processing and calibration procedure) into the controller of the observing system, the test and debugging of the developed algorithms in the laboratory, and the obtained quality-controlled data. The integration allowed the transmission of the acquired data in near-real time along with a complete set of typical ocean and atmospheric parameters. Preliminary analysis of the data is presented, providing qualitative information during rainfall periods, and combine gamma-ray detection rates with passive acoustic data. The analysis exhibits a satisfactory identification of rainfall events by both sensors according to the estimates obtained by the rain gauge operating on the observatory and the remote observations collected by meteorological radars. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainfall; marine technology; underwater spectroscopy; passive acoustic rainfall; marine technology; underwater spectroscopy; passive acoustic

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pensieri, S.; Patiris, D.; Alexakis, S.; Anagnostou, M.N.; Prospathopoulos, A.; Tsabaris, C.; Bozzano, R. Integration of Underwater Radioactivity and Acoustic Sensors into an Open Sea Near Real-Time Multi-Parametric Observation System. Sensors 2018, 18, 2737.

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