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Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072242

Graphene-Based Raman Spectroscopy for pH Sensing of X-rays Exposed and Unexposed Culture Media and Cells

1
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, SPIN-CNR, 80078 Pozzuoli, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Pancini”, Università “Federico II” di Napoli, 80126 Naples, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze Ecologiche e Biologiche, Università della Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Università della Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract

Graphene provides a unique way of sensing the local pH level of substances on the micrometric scale, with important implications for the monitoring of cellular metabolic activities where proton excretion could occur. Accordingly, an innovative biosensing approach for the quantification of the pH value of biological fluids, to be used also with small amounts of fluids, was realized and tested. It is based on the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy to detect the modifications of the graphene doping level induced by the contact of the graphene with the selected fluids. The approach was preliminarily tested on aqueous solutions of known pH values. It was then used to quantify the pH values of cell culture media directly exposed to different doses of X-ray radiation and to media exposed to X-ray-irradiated cells. The Raman response of cells placed on graphene layers was also examined. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; micro-Raman spectroscopy; culture media; human cells; physiometer bio-sensors graphene; micro-Raman spectroscopy; culture media; human cells; physiometer bio-sensors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Camerlingo, C.; Verde, A.; Manti, L.; Meschini, R.; Delfino, I.; Lepore, M. Graphene-Based Raman Spectroscopy for pH Sensing of X-rays Exposed and Unexposed Culture Media and Cells. Sensors 2018, 18, 2242.

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