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Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072201

Cholesterol-Bearing Fluorescent G-Quadruplex Potassium Probes for Anchoring at the Langmuir Monolayer and Cell Membrane

1
Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznan, Poland
2
Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Noskowskiego 12/14, 60-704 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopy Based Sensors)
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Abstract

The purpose of the present work was to design, synthesize and spectrally characterize cholesterol-anchored fluorescent oligonucleotide probes (Ch(F-TBA-T), Ch(py-TBA-py)), based on G-quadruplexes, which were able to incorporate into a lipid structure (Langmuir monolayer, living cell membrane). The probes, based on the thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) sequence, were labeled with fluorescent dyes which enabled simultaneous monitoring of the formation of G-quadruplex structures and visualization of probe incorporation into the cellular membrane. The combinations of fluorophores used included fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and excimer emission approaches. The structural changes of the probes upon binding with K+ or Na+ ions were monitored with fluorescence techniques. These systems showed a very high binding preference for K+ over Na+ ions. The use of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated successful anchoring of the cholesterol-bearing fluorescent probes to the living cell membrane. These structurally simple cholesterol-based fluorescent probes have good potential for opening up new and exciting opportunities in the field of biosensors; e.g., in vivo detection of K+ ions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholesterol anchor; G-quadruplex; FRET; pyrene; Langmuir monolayer; living cell membrane; potassium sensing cholesterol anchor; G-quadruplex; FRET; pyrene; Langmuir monolayer; living cell membrane; potassium sensing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Świtalska, A.; Dembska, A.; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, A.; Juskowiak, B. Cholesterol-Bearing Fluorescent G-Quadruplex Potassium Probes for Anchoring at the Langmuir Monolayer and Cell Membrane. Sensors 2018, 18, 2201.

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