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Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061891

A Microelectrode Array with Reproducible Performance Shows Loss of Consistency Following Functionalization with a Self-Assembled 6-Mercapto-1-hexanol Layer

1
EaStCHEM, School of Chemistry, The University of Edinburgh, Joseph Black Building, The King’s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ, UK
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NS, UK
3
Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, The University of Edinburgh, Chancellor’s Building, Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK
4
Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 9 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors)
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Abstract

For analytical applications involving label-free biosensors and multiple measurements, i.e., across an electrode array, it is essential to develop complete sensor systems capable of functionalization and of producing highly consistent responses. To achieve this, a multi-microelectrode device bearing twenty-four equivalent 50 µm diameter Pt disc microelectrodes was designed in an integrated 3-electrode system configuration and then fabricated. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for initial electrochemical characterization of the individual working electrodes. These confirmed the expected consistency of performance with a high degree of measurement reproducibility for each microelectrode across the array. With the aim of assessing the potential for production of an enhanced multi-electrode sensor for biomedical use, the working electrodes were then functionalized with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH). This is a well-known and commonly employed surface modification process, which involves the same principles of thiol attachment chemistry and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation commonly employed in the functionalization of electrodes and the formation of biosensors. Following this SAM formation, the reproducibility of the observed electrochemical signal between electrodes was seen to decrease markedly, compromising the ability to achieve consistent analytical measurements from the sensor array following this relatively simple and well-established surface modification. To successfully and consistently functionalize the sensors, it was necessary to dilute the constituent molecules by a factor of ten thousand to support adequate SAM formation on microelectrodes. The use of this multi-electrode device therefore demonstrates in a high throughput manner irreproducibility in the SAM formation process at the higher concentration, even though these electrodes are apparently functionalized simultaneously in the same film formation environment, confirming that the often seen significant electrode-to-electrode variation in label-free SAM biosensing films formed under such conditions is not likely to be due to variation in film deposition conditions, but rather kinetically controlled variation in the SAM layer formation process at these microelectrodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfabrication; microelectrode arrays; self-assembled monolayers; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); electrochemical sensors microfabrication; microelectrode arrays; self-assembled monolayers; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); electrochemical sensors
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Corrigan, D.K.; Vezza, V.; Schulze, H.; Bachmann, T.T.; Mount, A.R.; Walton, A.J.; Terry, J.G. A Microelectrode Array with Reproducible Performance Shows Loss of Consistency Following Functionalization with a Self-Assembled 6-Mercapto-1-hexanol Layer. Sensors 2018, 18, 1891.

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