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Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1719; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061719

Analysis of Consistency of Transthoracic Bioimpedance Measurements Acquired with Dry Carbon Black PDMS Electrodes, Adhesive Electrodes, and Wet Textile Electrodes

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 USA
2
College of Nursing, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
4
Philips Research, 5656 Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Biosignal Processing)
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Abstract

The detection of intrathoracic volume retention could be crucial to the early detection of decompensated heart failure (HF). Transthoracic Bioimpedance (TBI) measurement is an indirect, promising approach to assessing intrathoracic fluid volume. Gel-based adhesive electrodes can produce skin irritation, as the patient needs to place them daily in the same spots. Textile electrodes can reduce skin irritation; however, they inconveniently require wetting before each use and provide poor adherence to the skin. Previously, we developed waterproof reusable dry carbon black polydimethylsiloxane (CB/PDMS) electrodes that exhibited a good response to motion artifacts. We examined whether these CB/PDMS electrodes were suitable sensing components to be embedded into a monitoring vest for measuring TBI and the electrocardiogram (ECG). We recruited N = 20 subjects to collect TBI and ECG data. The TBI parameters were different between the various types of electrodes. Inter-subject variability for copper-mesh CB/PDMS electrodes and Ag/AgCl electrodes was lower compared to textile electrodes, and the intra-subject variability was similar between the copper-mesh CB/PDMS and Ag/AgCl. We concluded that the copper mesh CB/PDMS (CM/CB/PDMS) electrodes are a suitable alternative for textile electrodes for TBI measurements, but with the benefit of better skin adherence and without the requirement of wetting the electrodes, which can often be forgotten by the stressed HF subjects. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioimpedance; electrocardiogram; heart failure; electrodes; fluid accumulation bioimpedance; electrocardiogram; heart failure; electrodes; fluid accumulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Posada-Quintero, H.F.; Reljin, N.; Eaton-Robb, C.; Noh, Y.; Riistama, J.; Chon, K.H. Analysis of Consistency of Transthoracic Bioimpedance Measurements Acquired with Dry Carbon Black PDMS Electrodes, Adhesive Electrodes, and Wet Textile Electrodes. Sensors 2018, 18, 1719.

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