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Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051596

An Energy Balanced and Lifetime Extended Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

1
College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
2
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Blind Signal Processing, Chengdu 610000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018

Abstract

Energy limitation is an adverse problem in designing routing protocols for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). To prolong the network lifetime with limited battery power, an energy balanced and efficient routing protocol, called energy balanced and lifetime extended routing protocol (EBLE), is proposed in this paper. The proposed EBLE not only balances traffic loads according to the residual energy, but also optimizes data transmissions by selecting low-cost paths. Two phases are operated in the EBLE data transmission process: (1) candidate forwarding set selection phase and (2) data transmission phase. In candidate forwarding set selection phase, nodes update candidate forwarding nodes by broadcasting the position and residual energy level information. The cost value of available nodes is calculated and stored in each sensor node. Then in data transmission phase, high residual energy and relatively low-cost paths are selected based on the cost function and residual energy level information. We also introduce detailed analysis of optimal energy consumption in UWSNs. Numerical simulation results on a variety of node distributions and data load distributions prove that EBLE outperforms other routing protocols (BTM, BEAR and direct transmission) in terms of network lifetime and energy efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater communication; energy consumption; energy efficiency; routing protocols; network lifetime underwater communication; energy consumption; energy efficiency; routing protocols; network lifetime
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Wang, H.; Wang, S.; Zhang, E.; Lu, L. An Energy Balanced and Lifetime Extended Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 1596.

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