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Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041213

A Universal Vacant Parking Slot Recognition System Using Sensors Mounted on Off-the-Shelf Vehicles

1
School of Intelligent Mechatronics Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05006, Korea
2
Department of Electronic Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, 50 Daehak-ro, Chungju-si, Chungbuk 27469, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
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Abstract

An automatic parking system is an essential part of autonomous driving, and it starts by recognizing vacant parking spaces. This paper proposes a method that can recognize various types of parking slot markings in a variety of lighting conditions including daytime, nighttime, and underground. The proposed method can readily be commercialized since it uses only those sensors already mounted on off-the-shelf vehicles: an around-view monitor (AVM) system, ultrasonic sensors, and in-vehicle motion sensors. This method first detects separating lines by extracting parallel line pairs from AVM images. Parking slot candidates are generated by pairing separating lines based on the geometric constraints of the parking slot. These candidates are confirmed by recognizing their entrance positions using line and corner features and classifying their occupancies using ultrasonic sensors. For more reliable recognition, this method uses the separating lines and parking slots not only found in the current image but also found in previous images by tracking their positions using the in-vehicle motion-sensor-based vehicle odometry. The proposed method was quantitatively evaluated using a dataset obtained during the day, night, and underground, and it outperformed previous methods by showing a 95.24% recall and a 97.64% precision. View Full-Text
Keywords: automatic parking system; parking slot recognition; around-view monitor (AVM) system; sensor fusion automatic parking system; parking slot recognition; around-view monitor (AVM) system; sensor fusion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Suhr, J.K.; Jung, H.G. A Universal Vacant Parking Slot Recognition System Using Sensors Mounted on Off-the-Shelf Vehicles. Sensors 2018, 18, 1213.

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