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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020628

A Model-Driven Co-Design Framework for Fusing Control and Scheduling Viewpoints

1
Laboratory of Advanced Software Systems (LASSY), CSC Research Unit, University of Luxembourg, Maison du Nombre, L-4364 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
2
CSA Group, University of Amsterdam, 1098XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
RealTime-at-Work (RTaW), 4 Rue Piroux, 54000 Nancy, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Implementation of Future CPS)
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Abstract

Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) is widely applied in the industry to develop new software functions and integrate them into the existing run-time environment of a Cyber-Physical System (CPS). The design of a software component involves designers from various viewpoints such as control theory, software engineering, safety, etc. In practice, while a designer from one discipline focuses on the core aspects of his field (for instance, a control engineer concentrates on designing a stable controller), he neglects or considers less importantly the other engineering aspects (for instance, real-time software engineering or energy efficiency). This may cause some of the functional and non-functional requirements not to be met satisfactorily. In this work, we present a co-design framework based on timing tolerance contract to address such design gaps between control and real-time software engineering. The framework consists of three steps: controller design, verified by jitter margin analysis along with co-simulation, software design verified by a novel schedulability analysis, and the run-time verification by monitoring the execution of the models on target. This framework builds on CPAL (Cyber-Physical Action Language), an MDE design environment based on model-interpretation, which enforces a timing-realistic behavior in simulation through timing and scheduling annotations. The application of our framework is exemplified in the design of an automotive cruise control system.
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Keywords: model-driven engineering; control software; timing tolerance contract; controller model; schedulability; stability; input jitters; varying execution-times; output jitters; input-to-output delay; co-simulation; real-time scheduling; control system performance model-driven engineering; control software; timing tolerance contract; controller model; schedulability; stability; input jitters; varying execution-times; output jitters; input-to-output delay; co-simulation; real-time scheduling; control system performance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sundharam, S.M.; Navet, N.; Altmeyer, S.; Havet, L. A Model-Driven Co-Design Framework for Fusing Control and Scheduling Viewpoints. Sensors 2018, 18, 628.

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