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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020503

Wearable Driver Distraction Identification On-The-Road via Continuous Decomposition of Galvanic Skin Responses

Computer and Information Science Department, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128, USA
Current address: University of Michigan-Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128, USA.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 21 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing, Data Analysis and Platforms for Ubiquitous Intelligence)
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Abstract

One of the main reasons for fatal accidents on the road is distracted driving. The continuous attention of an individual driver is a necessity for the task of driving. While driving, certain levels of distraction can cause drivers to lose their attention, which might lead to an accident. Thus, the number of accidents can be reduced by early detection of distraction. Many studies have been conducted to automatically detect driver distraction. Although camera-based techniques have been successfully employed to characterize driver distraction, the risk of privacy violation is high. On the other hand, physiological signals have shown to be a privacy preserving and reliable indicator of driver state, while the acquisition technology might be intrusive to drivers in practical implementation. In this study, we investigate a continuous measure of phasic Galvanic Skin Responses (GSR) using a wristband wearable to identify distraction of drivers during a driving experiment on-the-road. We first decompose the raw GSR signal into its phasic and tonic components using Continuous Decomposition Analysis (CDA), and then the continuous phasic component containing relevant characteristics of the skin conductance signals is investigated for further analysis. We generated a high resolution spectro-temporal transformation of the GSR signals for non-distracted and distracted (calling and texting) scenarios to visualize the associated behavior of the decomposed phasic GSR signal in correlation with distracted scenarios. According to the spectrogram observations, we extract relevant spectral and temporal features to capture the patterns associated with the distracted scenarios at the physiological level. We then performed feature selection using support vector machine recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) in order to: (1) generate a rank of the distinguishing features among the subject population, and (2) create a reduced feature subset toward more efficient distraction identification on the edge at the generalization phase. We employed support vector machine (SVM) to generate the 10-fold cross validation (10-CV) identification performance measures. Our experimental results demonstrated cross-validation accuracy of 94.81% using all the features and the accuracy of 93.01% using reduced feature space. The SVM-RFE selected set of features generated a marginal decrease in accuracy while reducing the redundancy in the input feature space toward shorter response time necessary for early notification of distracted state of the driver. View Full-Text
Keywords: driver distraction; galvanic skin response; skin conductance; continuous decomposition analysis; spectro-temporal characterization; SVM-RFE feature selection driver distraction; galvanic skin response; skin conductance; continuous decomposition analysis; spectro-temporal characterization; SVM-RFE feature selection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Dehzangi, O.; Rajendra, V.; Taherisadr, M. Wearable Driver Distraction Identification On-The-Road via Continuous Decomposition of Galvanic Skin Responses. Sensors 2018, 18, 503.

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